CBSE Class 11 & 12 Computer Science and Informatics Practices Python Materials, Video Lecture

Introduction to computer and computing

Nowadays, there is no part of our daily life which is untouched by computer. There is a 0% possibility that somebody has not heard the word Computer. Uses of a computer system in our daily life has increased so much that we can't assume our life without it.

As a Basic Learner of Computer, all your doubts about computer will be clear after reading this small article about the computer.
    So, Now we will discuss in detail "What is computer", "Introduction to computer system",  "basic knowledge of computer",  "components of computer", "Input/Output device", "Computer memory". "Evolution Of Computer."


    What is Computer

    The word "Computer" comes from the word "Compute" which means "automatic calculation"
    A computer is an electronic device. which can store data and provide results according to instructions by the user.

    Type-  A computer system comes in various sizes and forms, It can vary from a Desktop, Laptop, Tablet, smartphone, etc.
    Input / Output - The computer can be programmed to accept data (input), process it, and generate results (output).

    You can make the full form of a computer by its Name.

     Full-Form of Computer
    • C – Commonly
    • O – Operated
    • M – Machine
    • P – Particularly
    • U – Used for
    • T – Technical
    • E – Education
    • R – Research
    Isn't it interesting, you can remember the definition of the computer by its name.

    Parts Of Computer System

    Parts-  (Hardware + Software) computer system consist of both "Hardware" & "Software"

    Hardware is a physical component ( We can touch).
          Example -  Mouse, Keyboard, Printer, etc.
    The software performs user instruction ( We can't touch, only see)
         Example -  Microsoft Word, Excel

      Basic Knowledge Of Computer

    Components of Computer
    Components of Computer System
    According to this diagram-  

    -  First of all, we have to give input through input devices like mouse, keyboard, etc,
    -  then application software sends this to the operating system, OS performs operations as per given instructions in the input.
    -  finally shows output at monitor or printer or other output devices.

    Input / Output Device

    Input/Output Devices

    Input Device:

    Keyboard -
    • The user gives data to the Computer using the keyboard
    • There are different keys to provide different data.
    Mouse -
    • The mouse gives a smooth way of interaction with the GUI (Graphical User Interface) of the Computer.
    • It takes its position on the computer screen relative to the surface where we move it by holding it in hand.
    Scanner -
    • It optically scans any object, picture, or handwritten notes and converts them to a digital image.
    • It is generally used in Offices to convert physical documents into digital forms.
    Joystick and Trackball are also input devices that give external input to computers.

    Output Device  :

    Monitor -
    • The monitor is used to display information in pictorial form.
    • It plays a vital role where the user can visually see the Output produces by the computer.
    Printer - 
    • It is used to make persistent representations of graphics or text, usually on paper.
    • The different types of printers include 3D printers, inkjet printers, laser printers, thermal printers, etc.
    Headset/Speaker -
    • It is used to give the Audio Output that can be heard by Listener.
    • When watching movies, Listening to Songs Headset/Speaker is useful.   

    Evolution Of Computer

    Evolution Of Computer

    1930s Computer - 
    • Konrad Zuse created what became known as the first Programmable computer that is called Z1.
    • It is a Calculating machine.

    1940s Computer - 
    • John Mauchly created the ENIAC during World War II to help the Army with ballistics analytics.
    • The machine could calculate thousands of problems each second.

    1950s Computer - 
    • Computers were used for scientific and engineering research. 
    • It is a helpful assistant for calculation

    1960s Computer -  
    • Computers were reserved for mathematicians and engineers in a lab setting.
    • 7 keys and a printer built-in. 

    1970s Computer - 
    • The Xerox Alto was created by personal computers. that could print documents and send emails.

    1980s Computer -  
    • When Steve Jobs introduced the first Macintosh computer in 1984.
    • facilities for windows and icons.

    1990s Computer -  
    • The iMac G3 included USB ports, a keyboard, and a mouse. It was meant to be portable and customizable. 
    • It stood for "internet," "innovation," and "individuality." 

    2000s Computer - 
    • Apple got rid of the CD drive and only included a USB port and a headphone jack. 
    • Including the MacBook Pro, iMac, Dell XPS, and iPhones. 

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