CBSE Class 11 & 12 Computer Science and Informatics Practices Python Materials, Video Lecture

The term Network Topology defines the Geographic, Physical, or logical arrangement of computer and networking devices.
The pattern of the interconnection of nodes on a network is called the topology.

FACTORS for choosing a Topology of a network are:-
• Cost: which offers minimum installation cost based on the network under consideration.
• Flexibility: Can offer easy move of existing nodes and adding new ones.
• Reliability: Offers least failure.

### BUS TOPOLOGY-:

• It consists of one continuous length of cable (trunk) that is shared by all the nodes in the network.
• It has a terminating resistor (terminator) at each end that absorbs the signal when it reaches the end of the line.
1. Easy to connect a computer.
2. Requires less cable length.
3. Failure of one node does not affect the network functioning.
1. The entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
2. Terminators are required at both ends.
3. Difficult to identify the problem.
4. Nodes must be intelligent.

### RING TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node has two neighboring nodes.
• Data packet is received from one neighboring and is transmitted to the next.
• Data travels in one direction in the ring-like structure.

1. Short cable length
2. The possibility of collision is minimum

1. One node causes network failure
2. It is very difficult to diagnose faults
3. Network reconfiguration is difficult.

### STAR TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator.
• Data passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing.
• The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network.

1. Easy to install.
2. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
3. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
1. Requires more cable length than a BUS/RING topology.
2. If the hub or concentrator fails, the nodes attached are disabled.
3. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

### MESH TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node is connected to another Node.

1. It is robust.
2. Provides security and privacy.
3. The fault is diagnosed easily.
1. The cost to implement is higher than other network topologies.
2. Installation and configuration are difficult.

### TREE TOPOLOGY -:

• A tree topology combines characteristics of linear BUS and STAR topologies.
• Inverted tree-like structure.
• It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.

1. Point-to-point wiring for individual segments
2. It is highly flexible
3. Centralized monitoring
1. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
2. It is difficult to configure the network if there is a single point of failure.
3. More wire is required than other topologies.

### HYBRID TECHNOLOGY -:

• A hybrid topology is an integration of two or more different topologies to form a resultant topology.