CBSE CS and IP

CBSE Class 11 & 12 Computer Science and Informatics Practices Python Materials, Video Lecture

What is Plagiarism and How to avoid it


 

Table of contents

  1. What is Plagiarism?
  2. Acts that involve Plagiarism
  3. How to Avoid Plagiarism

What is Plagiarism?

  • Plagiarism is stealing someone else’s intellectual work (can be an idea, literary work or academic work, etc.) and representing it as your own work without giving credit to the creator or without citing the source of information.
  • Plagiarism is an offense because it involves copyright infringement and not giving the credit to the author.

An act that involves plagiarism

  • Turning in someone else's work as your own
  • Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  • Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
  • Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
  • Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit.

How to avoid plagiarism

You must give credit whenever you use:
  •  Another person’s idea, opinion, or theory
  • Quotation of another person’s actual spoken or written words
  • Paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words




Net Etiquettes (Netiquettes)


 

What is Net Etiquettes (Netiquettes) or Net+etiquetts?

You must be aware of the term etiquette. This means the general behavior you must follow in your daily life. There is a little difference between etiquette and net etiquette. There are some rules that you must obey when you are online and using the Web/internet. These rules are called net etiquette (Netiquettes), Internet etiquettes or Online etiquetts
  • Online etiquette or ‘netiquette’ refers to the dos and don’ts of online communication.
  • You can do Online Communication using Snapchat, Instagram, WhatsApp, etc. These are the most popular online mediums available online.
Now let us discuss net etiquette do's and don'ts and some rules that you should follow while you are using the internet. 

7 Net Etiquettes you should follow

  1. Be respectful.
  2. Be aware of what you are commenting on social media.
  3. Be careful with humor and sarcasm
  4. You should take care of how you are sharing your data and who can see this.
  5. Friend requests and group invites should be checked before you accept them
  6. Take time to have a read of the rules of conduct/ community standards
  7. Be forgiving do not take fight online

Bad net etiquette

  1. Posting inappropriate jokes on social media
  2. Continuously posting messages to get the attention of someone is bad net etiquette.
  3.  Using a photo of another person on your profile
  4. Not respective peoples privacy online
  5. Taking fight online





Digital footprint

Digital Footprints


What is a Digital footprint?

  • A digital footprint is an impact you create on the Web through your online activity, which incorporates browsing, interactions with others, and publication of content. 
  • In other words, it can be considered as the data trail – intentional and unintentional - you leave behind while you surf the Web or Internet. 
  • Digital footprint or digital shadow refers to the trail of data left behind through the utilization of the Web or on digital devices.
  • The digital footprint of any person can have a positive as well as a negative impact on him.

How Digital Footprints are Created-

Find some of the examples of digital footprints:
  • Visiting Websites And Online Shopping
  •  Online Searching 
  •  Posting on Social Media, blogs, etc.
  •  Online Image and Video Upload 
  •  Communicating Online (Ex:- Chat, Email, etc.)
  •  Any activity you perform Online etc.

Types of digital footprints-

Following are the two types of digital footprints:
Active digital footprints:- Active digital footprints are those data trails that a person leaves intentionally on the Web. 
Ex:- Twitter, blog posts, Facebook, social network connections, image and video uploaded on Internet, phone calls, email, and chats are among the ways people create active digital footprints.
Passive digital footprints:- This suggests that a passive footprint would be defined as the unintentional traces of data that an individual creates on the Web.
Ex:- Website visits and actions, searches, and online purchases are among the activities that add passive data traces to a digital footprint.

Positive and Negative Digital Footprints

Positive digital Footprints:- 
That reflects your Positive Personality.
  • Increased opportunity
  • Higher profits
  • Less risk
  • Gentler treatment
Negative digital footprints:- 
Things that reflect your Negative Personality sort of a drunken photo, a silly comment, logging on to an inappropriate website.
  • Fewer Opportunities (like Admission, Job, etc.)
  • Negative Personal Image

How digital footprints can affect you?

  1. Privacy Issues: Digital footprints are a privacy concern because they're a group of traceable actions, contributions, and concepts shared by users. They are often tracked and may allow internet users to find out about human actions.
  2. Cyber Vetting: where interviewers could research about the applicants before the interview based on their online activities on the Web.
  3. Target advertisement: It is used by marketers so as to seek out what products a user is curious about or to inspire ones' interest during a certain product that supported similar interests.
  4. Less/More Opportunities depends upon your Positive/Negative Digital Footprints.

How can you manage your digital footprint?

Though it is not possible to fully hide your digital footprints, you can follow some of the given techniques to manage your digital footprints.
  1. You can search your name on different search engines and they provide you facilities where you can set up an alert for future notifications when your name searched online
  2. Have different email addresses, so professional and private accounts aren't automatically related to each other
  3. You can change privacy settings on social media accounts where you do not make more things public. But you should not trust them completely because your data is still with those platforms.
  4. Exercise caution altogether our activities, and refrain from oversharing

Built Positive Digital Footprints-

Since it is hard to not have a digital footprint, it is in one’s best interest to create a positive one.

It is beneficial for you !!














 

Cyber Law IT ACT 2000

CYBER LAW


What is cyber Law?


  • Cyber law, also known as cybercrime law, is legislation focused on the acceptable behavioral use of technology including computer hardware and software, the internet, and networks.
  • Cyber law helps protect users from harm by enabling the investigation and prosecution of online criminal activity.
  • It applies to the actions of individuals, groups, the public, government, and private organizations.

Overview of Indian IT ACT

  • The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament notified on 17 October 2000. It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce.
  • A major amendment was made in 2008 and now it is called the IT (Amendment) Act 2008.

Some Suggested questions that may be asked in board examination Class 12 CS/IP

  1. What is Cyber Crime? Write the act that deals with it.
  2. What is IT Act, 2000? Write down 2 salient features of IT Act, 2000.
  3. Difference between Cyber Crime and Cyber Law.

IPR (Intellectual Property Rights)

IPR

What is IPR?

  • If a person creates something by himself he posses the right on it, this right is called Intellectual property rights (IPR).
  • IPR gives the right to the creator over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
  • Intellectual property rights can be obtained at the national level/regional level.

Types Of IPR -

The most well-known types are -
  1. Copyrights
  2. Patents
  3. Trademarks
  4. Trade Secrets
The intellectual property right encourages the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create, usually for a limited period of time.

Wat Is Copyrights?

  • Copyright (or author’s right) is a legal term, it is used to describe the rights that creators have over their artistic and literary creation. 
  • Copyright is automatic; once you create something, it is yours. However, if you want to file a lawsuit against the infringement of your copyrighted work, then registration of your copyright will be necessary.
  • Works covered by copyright range from books, music, paintings, sculpture, and films, to computer programs, databases, advertisements, maps, and technical drawings.
  • Copyright protection extends only to expressions, and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation, or mathematical concepts as such. 
  • Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction.
  • Copyright may or may not be available for a number of objects such as titles, slogans, or logos, depending on whether they contain sufficient authorship.
  • In the majority of countries, and according to the Berne Convention, copyright protection is obtained automatically without the need for registration or other formalities.

What are Patents?

  • A patent is a type of limited-duration protection that can be used to protect inventions (or discoveries) that are new, non-obvious, and useful, such a new process, the machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter.
  • When a property owner holds a patent, others are prevented, under law, from offering for sale, making, or using the product.
  • A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides, in general, a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem. 
  • To get a patent, technical information about the invention must be disclosed to the public in a patent application.
  • Kind of protection: Patent protection means that the invention cannot be commercially made, used, distributed, imported, or sold by others without the patent owner's consent.
  • The protection is granted for a limited period, generally 20 years from the filing date of the application.

What Are Trademarks?

  • A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks are protected by intellectual property rights.
  • At the national/regional level, trademark protection can be obtained through registration, by filing an application for registration with the national/regional trademark office and paying the required fees.
  • The term of trademark registration can vary but is usually ten years.

What Is Trade Secrets -

  • Trade secrets refer to specific, private information that is important to a business because it gives the business a competitive advantage in its marketplace. Trade secrets are intellectual property (IP) rights on confidential information that may be sold or licensed.
  • Trade secrets are not made public, unlike patents, they do not provide “defensive” protection, as being prior art.
  • Trade secrets are protected without official registration; however, an owner of a trade secret whose rights are breached–i.e. someone steals their trade secret–may ask a court to ask against that individual and prevent them from using the trade secret.
  • kind of information is protected by trade secret: 
  • recipes for certain foods and beverages (like coca-cola or Sprite), new inventions, software, processes, even different marketing strategies. , technical information, such as information concerning manufacturing processes, pharmaceutical test data, designs and drawings of computer programs, distribution methods, list of suppliers and clients, and advertising strategies, financial information, formulas and recipes, and source codes.
  • A trade secret owner, however, cannot stop others from using the same technical or commercial information, if they acquired or developed such information independently by themselves through their own R&D, reverse engineering or marketing analysis, etc. 



MYSQL ORDER BY

 

order by

MYSQL ORDER BY clause

When you use the SELECT statement to query data from a table, the result set is not ordered. It means that the rows in the result set can be in any order.

To sort the result set, you add the ORDER BY clause to the SELECT statement. 
The SQL ORDER BY clause is used to sort the records in the result set for a SELECT statement.

The syntax for using ORDER BY -:

SELECT expressions
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions]
[GROUP BY <COL_NAME>
HAVING <CONDITION ON GROUPS>]
ORDER BY COL1,COL2,.. [ ASC | DESC ];

ASC –:
 Ascending order by COLUMNS [Default]
DESC – :
Descending order by COLUMNS

Note -:

ORDER BY clause is always evaluated after the FROM and SELECT clause.





MYSQL GROUP BY and HAVING



 MySQL  GROUP BY

The GROUP BY statement in SQL is used to arrange data into groups with the help of some functions. GROUP BY statement is used to retrieve grouped records based on one or more columns.

The aggregate function on SELECT Statement can be used with the GROUP BY Statement.
Aggregate Functions : AVG(),COUNT(),MAX(),MIN(),SUM().

The syntax for GROUP BY Statement in SQL -:

SELECT  <COL_NAME>
FROM  <TABLE>
WHERE  <CONDITION>
GROUP BY <COL_NAME>
HAVING <CONDITION ON GROUPS>;

Description MySQL GROUP BY -:

The GROUP BY clause combines all those records (Rows) that have identical values in a particular field (Column) or a group of fields.
This grouping results in one summary record per group.

If you want to total salary for all employees then we used the SUM function and you will get a sum of the total salary.
group by

If you want to total salary department wise like D1 or D2 then we have used GROUP BY.
group by MYSQL

Now you have also used the SUM function and using GROUP BY  tHen you will get the department-wise total salary  You can see all D1 and D2 columns combine in one row.
group by MYSQL

GROUP BY(Nested Grouping) using more than one column -

If you want to GROUP BY using more than one column, you can give all columns by using comma separation.  

Syntex -

SELECT Col1, Col2,AGG_FUN(Col3)
FROM Tab1
[WHERE <Condition>]
GROUP BY Col1, Col2 ;

group by MYSQL Nested grouping

GROUP BY Condition -

The GROUP BY clause is used with Aggregate Functions.
 All the fields (Columns) other than used in aggregate function should be put in GROUP BY clause.

Syntex -

SELECT AGG_FUN(Col1), Col2, Col3
FROM Tab1
WHERE <Condition>
GROUP BY Col2, Col3;










Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

ANSWERS OF ARYABHATA GANIT CHALLANGE 2020

All Quiz Questions and it's solution for Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020, all the answers are 100% accurate. Aryabhata Ganit Challange is Math one of the Math Competition. It is organised by CBSE through DIKSHA App or Diksha Portal.

This challenge shall be available on DIKSHA platform from 12th November 2020 to 25th November 2020. Students from class 8 to 10 irrespective of the Board are eligible to participate in 
this challenge.

If you want to participate in this competition you have to create an account on DIKSHA by going to https://diksha.gov.in/ . After that you can click here to participate in Aryabhata Ganit Challange 2020.

 Q 1:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

Answer: A) Satendra Nath Bose


Q 2: 


Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

Answer: 47


Q 3:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

Answer: A) OLNNIE

Q 4:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key

Answer: D)

Q 5:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: C)15.6

Q 6:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 39

Q 7:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 110

Q8:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 12

Q9:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer:  1

Q10:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer:  39

Q11:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 40

Q12:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer:  12

Q13:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: D) Never will come togather

Q14:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 2519

Q15:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: D) 488

Q16:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: B) Is Moving in the opposite direction

Q17:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: A) Blackened Diamond

Q18:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: D)

Q19:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 14

Q20:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 10

Q21:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: C) 20, 20

Q22:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 15

Q23:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 52.5

Q24:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: C) 48

Q25:

Aryabhata Ganit Challenge 2020 Answer Key


Answer: 10


MySQL Aggregate Functions

 

MySQL Aggregate Functions

An aggregate function performs a calculation on multiple values and returns a single value.


1. MAX ()

MAX function returns the maximum value of an expression.

Syntax:
SELECT MAX(aggregate_expression)
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions];

Parameter or Arguments:
aggregate_expression: This is the column or expression from which the maximum value will be returned.

2. MIN ()

MIN function returns the minimum value of an expression.

Syntax:
SELECT MIN(aggregate_expression)
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions];

Parameter or Arguments:
aggregate_expression: This is the column or expression from which the minimum value will be returned.

3. AVG ()

AVG function returns the average value of an expression.

Syntax:
SELECT AVG(aggregate_expression)
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions];

Parameter or Arguments:
aggregate_expression: This is the column or expression that will be averaged.


4. SUM ()

SUM function returns the summed value of an expression.

Syntax:
SELECT SUM(aggregate_expression)
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions];

Parameter or Arguments:
aggregate_expression: This is the column or expression that will be summed.

5. COUNT () and COUNT (*)

COUNT function returns the count of an expression.

Syntax:
SELECT COUNT(aggregate_expression)
FROM tables
[WHERE conditions];

Parameter or Arguments:
aggregate_expression: This is the column or expression whose non-null values will be counted.




MySQL Date Functions

 

MySQL Date Functions

For preforming the operations on dates, MySQL has provided some function:

1. NOW ()

NOW function returns the current date and time.

Syntax:
NOW( )

2. DATE ()

DATE function extracts the date value from a date or datetime expression.

Syntax:
DATE( expression )

Parameter or Arguments:
expression: The date or datetime value from which the date should be extracted.

3. MONTH ()

MONTH function returns the month portion of a date value.

Syntax:
MONTH( date_value )

Parameter or Arguments:
date_value: A date or datetime value from which to extract the month.

4. MONTHNAME ()

MONTHNAME function returns the full name of the month for a date.

Syntax:
MONTHNAME( date_value )

Parameter or Arguments:
date_value: A date or datetime value from which to extract the full month name.

5. YEAR ()

YEAR function returns the year portion of a date value.

Syntax:
YEAR( date_value )

Parameter or Arguments:
date_value: A date or datetime value from which to extract the year.

6. DAY ()

DAY function returns the day portion of a date value.

Syntax:
DAY( date_value )

Parameter or Arguments:
date_value: The date or datetime value from which to extract the day.

7. DAYNAME ()

DAYNAME function returns the weekday name for a date.

Syntax:
DAYNAME( date_value )

Parameter or Arguments:
date_value: The date or datetime value from which to extract the weekday name.