CBSE Class 11 & 12 Computer Science and Informatics Practices Python Materials, Video Lecture

## head() and tail() functions of Series Object

Pandas Series provides two very useful methods for extracting the data from the top and bottom of the Series Object. These methods are head() and tail().

head() method is used to get the elements from the top of the series. By default, it gives 5 elements.

Syntax:
<Series Object> . head(n = 5)

Example:
Consider the following Series, we will perform the operations on the below given Series S.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15``` ```import pandas as pd s = pd.Series({'A':1,'B':2,'C':3,'D':4,'E':5,'F':6,'G':7,'H':8}) print(s) Output: A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 dtype: int64 ```

### head() Function without argument

If we do not give any argument inside head() function, it will give by default 5 values from the top.
 ```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9``` ```s.head() Output: A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 dtype: int64 ```

### head() Function with Positive Argument

When a positive number is provided, the head() function will extract the top n rows from Series Object. In the below given example, I have given 7, so 7 rows from the top has been extracted.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11``` ```s.head(7) Output: A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 dtype: int64 ```

### head() Function with Negative Argument

We can also provide a negative value inside the head() function. For a negative value, it will check the index from the bottom and provide the data from the top.
 ```1 2 3 4 5``` ```s.head(-7) Output: A 1 dtype: int64 ```

## tail() Method

tail() method gives the elements of series from the bottom.

Syntax:
<Series Object> . tail(n = 5)

Example:
Consider the following Series, we will perform the operations on the below given Series S.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15``` ```import pandas as pd s = pd.Series({'A':1,'B':2,'C':3,'D':4,'E':5,'F':6,'G':7,'H':8}) print(s) Output: A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 dtype: int64 ```

### tail() function without argument

If we do not provide any argument tail() function gives be default 5 values from the bottom of the Series Object.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10``` ```s.tail() ''' Output: D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 dtype: int64 ''' ```

### tail() function Positive argument

When a positive number is provided tail() function given bottom n elements of the Series Object.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12``` ```s.tail(7) ''' Output: B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 dtype: int64 ''' ```

### tail() function Negative argument

When a negative number is provided it will give the data as follows:

 ```1 2 3 4 5 6``` ```s.tail(-7) ''' Output: H 8 dtype: int64 ''' ```

## CBSE TERM WISE Syllabus for Class 11 and 12 Session 2021-22

NEW TERM-WISE SYLLABUS 2021-22 !!!!

The CBSE Board annually provides a curriculum for classes IX to XII for a given academic year containing academic content, syllabus for examinations with learning outcomes, pedagogical practices, and assessment guidelines.

CBSE has released the term-wise syllabus for Session 2021-22 for Computer Science and Informatics Practices. You can download the new syllabus PDF by clicking the link given below:

CBSE TERM-WISE SYLLABUS 2021-22
COMPUTER SCIENCE
INFORMATICS PRACTICES

Links for Useful Material
You can find useful materials using the following links:

## XII CS CRASH COURSE eBook (PDF) 2020-21

Purchase the Class 12 CS CRASH COURSE ebook from here. It is based on the Revised Syllabus of CBSE and Covers UNIT-1 and UNIT-3 of Class 12 CS CBSE Syllabus.

Free Video Lectures are available on the youtube channel cbsecsip, click here to access the free video lectures.

Note:-

1. eBook PDF file will be delivered in your email within 15 - 20 minutes of purchase.
2. This book covers UNIT-1 and UNIT-3, all the topics which are discussed in the Online Youtube Class 12 CS CRASH COURSE of cbsecsip.
3. Once purchased, the item is not exchangeable or refundable.

## Mathematical operations on Pandas Series

1. You can perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, division, multiplication on two Series objects.
2. The operations are performed only on the matching indexes.
3. For all non-matching indexes, NaN (Not a Number) will be returned

Note:-  Like NumPy array, series support vector operations. Batch operations on data without writing any for loops. This is usually called vectorization.

Let us consider the following two Series S1 and S2. We will perform mathematical operations on these Series.

 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21``` ```import pandas as pd s1 = pd.Series(data = [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ], index = [ 'A' , 'B' , 'C' , 'D' , 'E' ]) s2 = pd.Series(data = [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ], index = [ 'B' , 'C' , 'D' , 'E' , 'F' ]) print(s1) A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 dtype: int64 print(s2) B 1 C 2 D 3 E 4 F 5 dtype: int64 ```

Now let us perform mathematical operations on these two Series.
1. Addition:  We can use the '+' Operator or add() method of Series to perform addition between two Series Objects.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18``` ```>>> s1 + s2 A NaN B 3.0 C 5.0 D 7.0 E 9.0 F NaN dtype: float64 >>> s1.add(s2) A NaN B 3.0 C 5.0 D 7.0 E 9.0 F NaN dtype: float64 ```

2. Subtraction: We can use the '-' Operator or sub() method of Series to perform addition between two Series Objects.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17``` ```>>> s1 - s2 A NaN B 1.0 C 1.0 D 1.0 E 1.0 F NaN dtype: float64 >>> s1.sub(s2) A NaN B 1.0 C 1.0 D 1.0 E 1.0 F NaN dtype: float64 ```

3. Division: We can use the '/' Operator or div() method of Series to perform addition between two Series Objects.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17``` ```>>> s1 / s2 A NaN B 2.000000 C 1.500000 D 1.333333 E 1.250000 F NaN dtype: float64 >>> s1.div(s2) A NaN B 2.000000 C 1.500000 D 1.333333 E 1.250000 F NaN dtype: float64 ```

4. Multiplication: We can use the '*' Operator or mul() method of Series to perform addition between two Series Objects.
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17``` ```>>> s1*s2 A NaN B 2.0 C 6.0 D 12.0 E 20.0 F NaN dtype: float64 >>> s1.mul(s2) A NaN B 2.0 C 6.0 D 12.0 E 20.0 F NaN dtype: float64 ```

## CBSE Artificial Intelligence Class VI, VII, VIII, XI, X (Subject Code - 417) and XI, XII (Subject Code - 843) Syllabus

CBSE has Introduced Artificial Intelligence as an additional skill subject for classes VI-VIII and IX-X (Subject Code:- 417) on 9th March 2019 and XI-XII (Subject Code:- 417) on 3rd June 2021. Now many schools have started teaching artificial intelligence as an additional subject.

## Question Paper Pattern for Artificial Intelligence:

S No Class Course Name Duration Marks Distribution
Theory Practical
1 VI-VIII Artificial Intelligence 12 hours 15 35
2 IX-XII Artificial Intelligence 50 50

## Syllabus of Artificial Intelligence (417):

1. Class VI-VIII - Syllabus
2. Class IX - Syllabus
3. Class X - Syllabus

## Syllabus of Artificial Intelligence (843):

1. Class XI - Syllabus
2. Class XII - Syllabus

## CBSE Skill Subjects for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

As we are aware that Practical skills are more important than only theoretical knowledge. Keeping in mind CBSE has introduced Skill Education, where it will introduce skill-based additional subjects in Class 6 - 12. These subjects will cover more skill-based knowledge than theoretical knowledge.

Now you must have a question that what is skill-based education?
Skill education is also called Vocational Education and Training. It prepares learners for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities. It is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.

CBSE's Skill Education Department has introduced many subjects for different classes under Skill Education. The subject list is as follows:

## LIST OF SKILL COURSES OFFERED AT MIDDLE LEVEL

### 1. FOR CLASSES VI / VII / VIII :

S. No. COURSE NAME Duration MARKS DISTRIBUTION
Theory Practical
1 Artificial Intelligence 12 hours 15 35
2 Beauty & Wellness 12 hours 15 35
3 Design Thinking 12 hours 15 35
4 Financial Literacy 12 hours 15 35
5 Handicrafts 12 hours 15 35
6 Information Technology 12 hours 15 35
7 Marketing/ Commercial Application 12 hours 15 35
8 Mass Media 12 hours 15 35
9 Travel & Tourism 12 hours 15 35

### 2. FOR CLASSES IX / X :

S. No. SUB CODE COURSE NAME JOB ROLES MARKS DISTRIBUTION
Theory Practical
1 401 Retail Store Operations Assistant 50 50
2 402 Information Technology Domestic IT Executive/ Operator 50 50
3 403 Security Unarmed Security Guard 50 50
4 404 Automotive Automotive Service Technician 50 50
5 405 Introduction To Financial Markets Business Correspondent 50 50
6 406 Introduction To Tourism Assistant Tour Guide 50 50
7 407 Beauty & Wellness Assistant Beauty Therapist 50 50
8 408 Agriculture Solanaceous Crop Cultivator 50 50
9 409 Food Production Assistant Chef (reg.) 50 50
10 410 Front Office Operations Front Office Executive 50 50
11 411 Banking & Insurance Field Executive 50 50
12 412 Marketing & Sales Marketing Assistant 50 50
13 413 Health Care General Duty Assistant 50 50
14 414 Apparel Hand Embroider 50 50
15 415 Multi Media Texture Artist 50 50
16 416 Multi Skill Foundation course Multi Skill Assistant 50 50
17 417 Artificial Intelligence 50 50
18 418 Physical Activity Trainer (New) 50 50

### 3. FOR CLASSES XI / XII:

S. No. SUB CODE COURSE NAME JOB ROLES MARKS DISTRIBUTION
Theory Practical
1 801 Retail Sales Associate 60 40
2 802 Information Technology IT Helpdesk Assistant 60 40
3 803 Web Application Web Developer 60 40
4 804 Automotive Automotive Service Technician 60 40
5 805 Financial Markets Management Equity Dealer/Mutual Fund Agent 60 40
6 806 Tourism Tour Guide 60 40
7 807 Beauty & Wellness Beauty Therapist 60 40
8 808 Agriculture Agriculture Extension Worker 70 30
9 809 Food Production Trainee Commie 60 40
10 810 Front Office Operations Counter Sales Executive 60 40
11 811 Banking Sales Executive (Banking product) 60 40
12 812 Marketing Marketing Executive 60 40
13 813 Health Care General Duty Assistant 60 40
14 814 Insurance Sales Executive (Insurance) 60 40
15 816 Horticulture Floriculturist (protected)/Entrepreneur 60 40
16 817 Typography & Computer Application Executive Assistant 60 40
17 818 Geospatial Technology GIS Operator 60 40
18 819 Electrical Technology Field Technician-other home 60 40
19 820 Electronic Technology Installation Technician 60 40
20 821 Multi-Media Animator 50 50
21 822 Taxation Assistant Tax Consultant / GST Accounts Assistant 60 40
22 823 Cost Accounting Jr. Accountant 60 40
23 824 Office Procedures & Practices Executive Assistant 60 40
24 825 Shorthand (English) Stenographer 60 40
25 826 Shorthand (Hindi) Stenographer 60 40
26 827 Air-conditioning & Refrigeration Service Technician 60 40
27 828 Medical Diagnostics Medical Lab Technician 60 40
28 829 Textile Design Design Assistant (Apparel / Textile) 60 40
29 830 Design Assistant Designer 50 50
30 831 Salesmanship Sales Executive 60 40
32 834 Food Nutrition & Dietetics Assistant Dietician 70 30
33 835 Mass Media Studies Media Assistant 70 30
34 836 Library & Information Science Library Assistant 70 30
35 837 Fashion Studies Assistant Fashion Designer 70 30
36 841 Yoga Yoga Instructor 50 50
37 842 Early Childhood Care & Education Early Childhood Educator 50 50
38 843 Artificial Intelligence (New) 50 50

## Scheme of Study

### 1. FOR CLASSES IX / X:

SUBJECTS DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS
COMPULSORY SUBJECT 1 Language 1
SUBJECT 2 Language 2
SUBJECT 3 Science
SUBJECT 4 Mathematics
SUBJECT 5 Social Science
SUBJECT 6 SKILL SUBJECT *
OPTIONAL SUBJECT 7 Language 3 / Any Academic subject other than those opted above
SUBJECTS OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
{Assessment and certification at school level}
SUBJECT 8 AND 9 Art Education, Health & Physical Education (Work Experience subsumed)

a) *If a student fails in any one of the three compulsory academic subjects (i.e. Science, Mathematics and Social Science) and passes in the Skill subject (offered as 6th optional subject), then it will be replaced by the Skill subject and result of Class X Board examination will be computed accordingly.

b) Students offering additional sixth skill subject may also offer an additional language III/subject as 7th subject.

c) Computer Application (Code 165), Information Technology (Code 402), Artificial Intelligence (Code 417) and Media (Code 415) cannot be taken together.

### 2. FOR CLASSES XI / XII:

Subject I Language I :English or Hindi
Subject II Language II : Language other than Language I
OR
an elective subject from Academic Electives in lieu of Language II
Subject III, IV & V Two elective subject from Academic Electives and one Skill subject from Skill Electives
OR
One elective subject from Academic Electives and Two Skill subjects from Skill Electives
OR
Three Skill subjects from Skill Electives
OR
Subject VI -
one language at elective level
OR
one subject from Academic Electives
OR
any one subject from Skill Electives
Sub VII to VIII
(Subjects of internal assessment)
501-General Foundation Course
502-Physical and Health Education

Notes:
• Out of the languages, one shall be English or Hindi, both English and Hindi can also be offered simultaneously.
• The same language can be offered only at one level i.e. Core/ Elective.
• The List of Skill Electives available is attached. Subjects, as prescribed under Skill Courses, are to opt. However, a Scheme of Studies may be referred to.
• Physics (042) and Applied Physics (838 ) cannot be taken together
• Chemistry(043) and Applied Chemistry (839) cannot be taken together
• Mathematics(041) and Applied Mathematics (840) cannot be taken together
• Informatics Practice (065) cannot be taken with Information Technology (802) and Web Application (803).
• Business Studies (054) and Business Administrations (833) cannot be taken together.

## How to find CBSE sample question papers for CLASS 12 and CLASS 10

You can get the CBSE sample question papers from CBSE Website. To get the sample question papers for Class 10 and Class 12 follow the steps given below:

Step -1: Go to http://cbseacademic.nic.in/index.html

Step - 2: Now go to the Sample Question Paper Menu available on the website.

Step 3: Here you will find year-wise sample question papers with a marking scheme.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q:- Is there any way to get answers of the previous year's CBSE question paper?

Ans:- Yes, you can follow the above method to get the sample question papers of previous years with its solution.

## Top 10 Projects For Computer Science/Informatics Practices (CBSE)

If you are a student of CBSE 11th or 12th class and searching for new topics for the school project, then you in the right place, Here we will give the idea of some projects so that you will not have much trouble finding the topics of the project. So let's know about some tips and topics project.

### 5 Easy Tips To Make A Project Planning and management  -:

Before starting any work, it is very important to plan, Without planning, work is not successful, So here we are giving some easy, simple and useful tips.
CBSE (11&12class) Projects are based on any programming language but now Python Programming Language is included in the syllabus of CS/IP for session 2020-21.
• Your project should be from your syllabus only. The knowledge of the subject will make it easier to create the project.
• You have to choose the topic first on which you will make a Python Program.
• Then with your team members (Friends) start on it and collect information about that topic.
• Divide the work and start making the separate python program.
• Now combine each member's work.

### Top 10 Easy Project Topics For CS/IP Students (CBSE 11th/12th) -:

1. Bank Management
2. Library Management
3. School Management
4. Student Result Generator
5. Telephone Billing
6. Train Ticket Reservation
7. Telephone Directory
8. Hotel Management
9. Any Shop Billing System (Ex:- Book Shop)
10. Restaurant Billing

## Network Topologies in Computer Network

The term Network Topology defines the Geographic, Physical, or logical arrangement of computer and networking devices.
The pattern of the interconnection of nodes on a network is called the topology.

FACTORS for choosing a Topology of a network are:-
• Cost: which offers minimum installation cost based on the network under consideration.
• Flexibility: Can offer easy move of existing nodes and adding new ones.
• Reliability: Offers least failure.

### BUS TOPOLOGY-:

• It consists of one continuous length of cable (trunk) that is shared by all the nodes in the network.
• It has a terminating resistor (terminator) at each end that absorbs the signal when it reaches the end of the line.
1. Easy to connect a computer.
2. Requires less cable length.
3. Failure of one node does not affect the network functioning.
1. The entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
2. Terminators are required at both ends.
3. Difficult to identify the problem.
4. Nodes must be intelligent.

### RING TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node has two neighboring nodes.
• Data packet is received from one neighboring and is transmitted to the next.
• Data travels in one direction in the ring-like structure.

1. Short cable length
2. The possibility of collision is minimum

1. One node causes network failure
2. It is very difficult to diagnose faults
3. Network reconfiguration is difficult.

### STAR TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator.
• Data passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing.
• The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network.

1. Easy to install.
2. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
3. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
1. Requires more cable length than a BUS/RING topology.
2. If the hub or concentrator fails, the nodes attached are disabled.
3. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

### MESH TOPOLOGY -:

• Each node is connected to another Node.

1. It is robust.
2. Provides security and privacy.
3. The fault is diagnosed easily.
1. The cost to implement is higher than other network topologies.
2. Installation and configuration are difficult.

### TREE TOPOLOGY -:

• A tree topology combines characteristics of linear BUS and STAR topologies.
• Inverted tree-like structure.
• It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.

1. Point-to-point wiring for individual segments
2. It is highly flexible
3. Centralized monitoring
1. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
2. It is difficult to configure the network if there is a single point of failure.
3. More wire is required than other topologies.

### HYBRID TECHNOLOGY -:

• A hybrid topology is an integration of two or more different topologies to form a resultant topology.

## Computer Network Devices

### Introduction -

Specialized hardware is required to carry out various roles in a network e.g. Establishing connections, controlling network traffic, and many more.

### NIC (Network Interface card) -

It is a device attached to each workstation and server. Helps to make connections within the network.
Each NIC has a unique number identifying it called node address/MAC address (Media Access Control) /Physical Address.
Types:
1. Ethernet Card
2. WiFi Card

### RJ - 45 -:

• RJ-45 stands for Registered Jack-45.
• RJ-45 is an eight-wire connector, which is commonly used to connect computers on LAN especially Ethernet.

### MODEM (Modulator - Demodulator) -:

• The modem is an abbreviation for Modulator – Demodulator.
• The modulator converts information from digital mode to analog mode at the transmitting end and the demodulator converts the same from analog to digital at receiving end.

### REPEATER -

• It is a device that accepts the weak signals and amplifies the signals for further transmission.
• Different types of wires have different transmission distances, hence repeater should be used according to the types of wire.
• Generally, we consider that most wires require a repeater after a 100m distance.

### HUB - :

• Hub is an electronic device that connects several nodes to form a network and redirect the received information to all the nodes in a broadcast mode. It is called a non-intelligent device.
• It is mostly used in Star or Ring topology and works on MAC addresses.

#### Types:

Active hub:- electrically amplify the signal.
Passive hub:- do not amplify the data.

### BRIDGE - :

• In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol.
• The bridge acts on MAC/Physical Address.
• A bridge examines each message on a LAN, "passing" those known to be within the same LAN, and forwarding those known to be on the other interconnected LAN (or LANs).

### SWITCH - :

• It is an intelligent device that connects several nodes to form a network and redirect the received information only to the intended node(s).
• A switch is also called Intelligent HUB.
• Switch stores the MAC address table of all the connected nodes, which helps it to send the data to the desired node.

### ROUTER - :

The router works on IP address.
Routers normally connect LANs and WANs together.
It has a dynamically updating routing table (stores IP Addressed) based on which they make decisions on routing the data packets.

### GATEWAY - :

• Gateway is a device that connects dissimilar networks.
• Establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external networks with completely different structures.
• Gateway is the ISP(Internet Service Provider) that connects the user to the internet. The gateway can also act as Firewall, API Gateways, etc.